Legal publications are increasingly available in electronic formats. However, not all electronic databases provide these materials in Portable Document Format (PDF). Because PDF documents copied from original print publications reflect the original pagination, they are the preferred electronic source for Bluebook citation. This guide presents sources and strategies for locating common legal research materials in PDF.
Note: Resources marked with an asterisk (*) are available only by password to current Duke Law students, faculty, and staff.
Book titles which are available in electronic full-text through various databases will appear in a search of the Duke Libraries Catalog with the notation "[electronic resource]". A link to the online version will appear in the item's catalog record; off-campus users will need to enter a Duke NetID and password to view the full text.
Some e-book publishers, such as NetLibrary and Oxford Reference Online, do not provide access to full text in PDF. In addition, some e-book sources may place restrictions on printing, due to copyright concerns. The most common sources for full-text e-books in PDF include:
- Early American Imprints
- Early English Books Online
- Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO)
- Gale Virtual Reference Library
- HeinOnline (from main screen, scroll to Legal Classics Library)
- Making of Modern Law
Many books have also been digitized into Google Book Search. Historical materials (where copyright protection has expired) are frequently available in full text. More recent titles often offer a "Limited Preview"; although selected pages are excluded from this view, it can often be useful for viewing tables of contents, indexes and for searching the full text of a book. (NOTE: A free Gmail account may be required to search and view some titles in Google Book Search.)
II. Journals and Law Reviews
Most law journals and law reviews are available electronically in PDF, although the most recent issues may not be available. To determine whether a specific article citation is available electronically, use the Online Full-Text Journals link from the Law Library's home page. Search for the title of the journal (not the individual article) to retrieve a listing of Duke databases which contain the full text of that journal title, as well as information about the years of coverage.
The list will not indicate whether the contents are provided in PDF; you will need to enter each database to determine in which format the articles are provided. The major sources for law-related titles in PDF are:
- Academic Search Premier
- HeinOnline (latest 1-3 years usually unavailable)
- JSTOR (latest 1-3 years usually unavailable)
- Project Muse
Current issues of academic journals are also frequently available as a sample from the individual journal's web site; these samples are often published as PDF documents. In addition, pre-publication drafts of many law review articles are often posted for free download at the Social Science Research Network.
III. Newspaper Articles
To determine whether a specific newspaper is available in full-text electronically, use the Online Full-Text Journals link from the Law Library’s home page. Search for the title of the newspaper (not the individual article) to retrieve a listing of Duke databases which contain the full text of that newspaper, as well as information about the years of coverage. The list will not indicate whether the contents are provided in PDF; you will need to enter each database to determine in which format the articles are provided.
Most full-text sources for newspaper articles, such as America’s Newspapers and InfoTrac Custom Newspapers, provide the full text of articles only in HTML format. However, some historical articles from U.S. newspapers may be available in PDF through the database ProQuest Historical Newspapers. This database includes PDF versions of:
- New York Times (1851-3 years ago)
- Wall Street Journal (1889-1992)
- Washington Post (1877-1993)
- Los Angeles Times (1881-1986)
- Atlanta Constitution (1868-1942)
- Atlanta Daily World (1932-2003)
- Chicago Tribune (1849-1986)
America's Historical Newspapers, 1690-1922 also offers downloadable facsimiles of many early U.S. newspapers. PDF versions of historical articles from selected British newspapers are also available in Duke’s electronic databases. The London Times is available in PDF through the Times Digital Archive (1785-1985). The Times Literary Supplement is also available in PDF in a separate database, TLS Centenary Archive (1902-1990). These databases can be reached through the Law Library’s home page, via the link labeled More Research Databases.
In addition to the Duke databases listed above, the free site Newseum: Today's Front Pages provides PDFs of the front pages of many national and local newspapers for the current date. The Archive section maintains selected front-page PDFs for dates of historical interest (including the deaths of national figures, major terrorist attacks, and Hurricane Katrina).
The Google News Archive Search provides results which are a mix of pay-per-view and free articles. Free articles include scanned images of many newspapers from smaller cities, such as the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the St. Petersburg Times.
IV. Cases and Court Documents
Legal opinions and other court documents can be located in PDF format in several places. The available documents and their locations vary by the type of court.
United States Supreme Court
Official United States Reports
- Supreme Court Web Site (1991- )
- HeinOnline US Supreme Court Library (bound reports, preliminary prints, and slip opinions 1754-present)
West's Supreme Court Reporter
- Westlaw* (1920- ); recent cases not available in PDF until published in the permanent reporter volume.
Supreme Court Records and Briefs
- Westlaw* (Coverage varies. More PDF versions are available for notable cases and cases with 2004 docket numbers and forward. Look for the notation "Original Image of this Document (PDF)".)
- FindLaw Supreme Court Briefs (Coverage varies. Look for Adobe Acrobat PDF symbol.)
- U.S. Supreme Court Records & Briefs, 1832-1978 (Page-image scans of a microform set of records and briefs.)
Other Federal Courts
West's Federal Supplement and Federal Reporter
- Westlaw* (1920- )
Federal Court filings
- Westlaw* (1920- )
- PACER* (Document availability varies by court. See a reference librarian for PACER access.)
- LLMC Digital, (Availability varies by court. Some volumes are available for all jurisdictions. This resource is most useful for historical information.)
- State Court Web sites, National Center for State Courts (provides links to state courts; many publish their own opinions online in PDF)
- LexisNexis* (selected state official reporters available in PDF; date coverage varies)
- Westlaw* (Regional Reporter system volumes; 1920 – current)
V. Statutes and Legislative History
Many federal legislative materials are available online in PDF for each stage of the law-making process.
Bills & Resolutions
- FDsys (1993- )
- THOMAS (bill text 1989- ; PDF 1995- )
- American Memory Project (1799-1873; selective)
- Westlaw* (FED-LH database, bills related to selected public laws, 1915-1995)
Reports/Documents ("Serial Set")
- FDsys (1995- )
- THOMAS (1995- )
- ProQuest Congressional (1990- ; selected)
- U.S. Congressional Serial Set Online (1817-1980)
Debates (Congressional Record and earlier titles)
- FDsys (1994- ); daily edition
- HeinOnline U.S. Congressional Documents Library, (1789-present, continually updated); permanent edition
- American Memory Project (1789-1877)
- FDsys (selected hearings only; 1995- )
- Supreme Court nomination hearings; (1971- )
- ProQuest Congressional (1824- )
- Hearings may also be published on the individual committee’s web site.
Enacted Public Laws ("slip laws")
United States Statutes at Large ("session laws")
- HeinOnline U.S. Statutes at Large Library (1789-2004)
- LexisNexis* (1789- ; enter citation into "Get a Document" and select result #2 for PDF)
- Westlaw* (1789-1972; US-STATLRG database)
United States Code (U.S.C.)
- FDsys (1994-present)
- U.S. House of Representatives (2000 and 2006 editions only)
- HeinOnline United States Code Library (1925- )
The availability of state materials in PDF will vary by jurisdiction; consult the Cornell University Law Library Legal Research Engine to locate a state-specific library research guide to legislative history materials. Quick access to individual state legislatures is available through the National Conference of State Legislatures' State Legislative Websites.
VI. Regulations and Administrative Materials
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) can be found in PDF on FDsys beginning in 1996 through the current year. Historical issues of the Code of Federal Regulations can also be found on HeinOnline in the Code of Federal Regulations Library (1938- ).
The Federal Register is available on FDsys from 1994 forward in PDF format. The Federal Register, with the exception of the most current issue, may also be found on HeinOnline in its Federal Register Library.
Many federal administrative agencies include more recent agency decisions online. In some cases, these decisions can be found in PDF format. A good place to begin a search for agency decisions generally is the University of Virginia's Government Information Resources, which provides a page with links to administrative agency opinions. Historical agency decisions may also be found in HeinOnline's U.S. Federal Agency Library.
VII. Treaties and International Law
The HeinOnline Treaties and Agreements Library includes PDF versions of international treaties to which the United States is a party dating back to the mid 1800’s. Unofficial versions can be found on Hein dating even farther back. In addition, treaty finding tools are also available in PDF on Hein as well as Treaties in Force and secondary resources that support treaty research. There are also U.S. treaties available online in government databases.
Official Publications in HeinOnline
- United States Statutes at Large, Vols. 7-8 (1848, 1867)
- United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (UST), Vols. 1-35 (1950-1984)
- Treaties and International Act Series (TIAS), TIAS 11060 to TIAS 12734 (1982-1996)
- KAV Agreements (Recent State Department Agreements, Senate Treaty Documents, Trade Agreements and others), KAV 0001-7729 (1987- )
Official Publications on Government Sites
- Treaties in Force (Department of State); (current version)
- U.S. Department of State FOIA Electronic Reading Room (1998- )
Treaty Guides and Indexes
- Catalogue of Treaties 1814-1918 (1919)
- Collection of Neutrality Law, Regulations and Treaties of Various Countries (1939)
- Current Treaty Index (1982-1999)
- Digest of the Published Opinions of the Attorneys-General, & of the Leading Decisions of the Federal Courts, with Reference to International Law, Treaties and Kindred Subjects (1877)
- Guide to the United States Treaties in Force (1982-2006)
See the HeinOnline Treaties and Agreements Library for other unofficial treaty publications and secondary resources that support treaty research.
United Nations Treaties
UN Treaties to which the U.S. may or may not be a party can be located in PDF format using several free and subscription electronic resources.
- United Nations Treaty Collection (Includes any treaties deposited with the Secretary General. These are commonly, but not always, UN Treaties. This resource includes the UN Treaty Series and the League of Nations Treaty Series in PDF.)
- Official Document System of the United Nations (Includes treaties 1946‑ )
Documents from International Organizations
United Nations documents (other than treaties) may also be found in PDF format in the United Nations Official Documents System collection.
European Union materials can be found, many in PDF, in Eur‑Lex, the European Union law portal. The Official Journal of the EU is available in PDF format as well as some of the documents in these collections:
- International agreements
- Legislation in force
- Preparatory acts
Documents from other IGOs can often be found in PDF format on the website of the organization. International Governmental Organizations, a guide from the Northwestern University Library, provides links to many IGOs.
Other International Resources
The HeinOnline Foreign and International Law Resources Database includes PDF versions of materials of varying scope on the following topics:
- International Yearbooks and Periodicals
- U.S. Law Digests
- International Tribunals/Judicial Decisions
rev. Jennifer L. Behrens