Public Domain Day 2016
Public Domain Day: January 1, 2016
Public Domain Day is January 1st of every year. If you live in Europe, January 1st 2016 would be the day when the works of Béla Bartók, Blind Willie Johnson, and Felix Salten enter the public domain.1 The works of Adolf Hitler will also enter the public domain, allowing a team of historians to publish a heavily annotated edition of Mein Kampf with around 3,500 academic annotations intended to “show how Hitler wove truth with half-truth and outright lie, and thus to defang any propagandistic effect while revealing Nazism.” Also entering the public domain are the works of authors and artists who tragically died in Hitler's concentration camps, including Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Josef Čapek, and Anne Frank. This would enable projects such as the Anne Frank House museum's expanded online version of Anne Frank’s diary, intended for release after its copyright expires. Unfortunately, this project could be under threat because the foundation that owns the copyright in the diary is attempting to prolong its copyright with a dubious legal claim.2
In Canada, the works of T.S. Eliot, Winston Churchill, and Malcolm X will emerge into the public domain. Canadians can stage their own dramatizations of T.S. Eliot’s Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats (the basis for the Broadway show CATS), or add the full works of Churchill and Malcolm X to online archives, all without asking permission or violating the law. However, Canadians may have much less to celebrate next year. The recently released Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement (“TPP”), if ratified, would require Canada, along with 5 other countries, to add 20 years to its copyright term (expanding the term from 50 to 70 years after the author’s death). This is happening at a time when there is a consensus among academics, economists, and policymakers—including two heads of the United States Copyright Office—that this term is a “big mistake.” Why? Because its benefits are minuscule—economists (including five Nobel laureates) have shown that term extension does not spur additional creativity. At the same time, it causes enormous harm, locking away millions of older works that are no longer generating any revenue for the copyright holders. Films are literally disintegrating because preservationists can’t digitize them. The works of historians and journalists are incomplete. Artists find their cultural heritage off limits. Estimates are that the yearly cost to Canada from this term extension could exceed 100 million Canadian dollars. (You can read about the works that won’t enter Canada’s public domain here.) Yet, against this backdrop, the TPP would nevertheless mandate the term extension. If "the definition of insanity is repeating the same mistakes and expecting different results,” this would certainly qualify.
What is entering the public domain in the United States? Not a single published work. Once again, no published works are entering the public domain in the United States this year. Or next year. In fact, no publication will enter our public domain until 2019.3
Run, Bambi, Run!
Felix Salten’s children’s classic Bambi, A Life in the Woods is entering the public domain in Europe this year. However, it’s still copyrighted in the United States. After a dispute with the book’s copyright holder, the Walt Disney Corporation filed a lawsuit claiming that Bambi was in the public domain, but the appeals court disagreed. (Pause to consider that for a moment. Disney was arguing for the public domain. Ah, the irony.)
When the first copyright law was written in the United States, copyright lasted 14 years, renewable for another 14 years if the author wished. Jefferson or Madison could look at the books written by their contemporaries and confidently expect them to be in the public domain within a decade or two. Now? In the United States, as in much of the world, copyright lasts for the author’s lifetime, plus another 70 years. You might think, therefore, that works whose authors died in 1945 would be freely available on January 1, 2016. Sadly, no. When Congress changed the law, it applied the term extension retrospectively to existing works, and gave all in-copyright works published between 1923 and 1977 a term of 95 years. The result? None of those works will enter the public domain until 2019, and works from 1959, whose arrival we might otherwise be expecting January 1, 2016, will not enter the public domain until 2055. In addition to lengthening the term, Congress also changed the law so that every creative work is automatically copyrighted, even if the author does nothing.
What do these laws mean to you? As you can read in our analysis here, they impose great (and in many cases unnecessary) costs on creativity, on libraries and archives, on education and on scholarship. More broadly, they impose costs on our collective culture. We have little reason to celebrate on Public Domain Day because our public domain has been shrinking, not growing.
It’s a Wonderful Public Domain…. What happens when works enter the public domain? Sometimes, wonderful things. The 1946 film It’s A Wonderful Life entered the public domain in 1975 because its copyright was not properly renewed after the first 28-year term. The film had been a flop on release, but thanks to its public domain status, it became a holiday classic. Why? Because TV networks were free to show it over and over again during the holidays, making the film immensely popular. But then copyright law reentered the picture…. In 1993, the film’s original copyright holder, capitalizing on a recent Supreme Court case, reasserted copyright based on its ownership of the film’s musical score and the short story on which the film was based (the film itself is still in the public domain). Ironically, a film that only became a success because of its public domain status was pulled back into copyright.
It didn’t have to be this way. As you can read in our analysis of the subject, if we had the laws that were in effect until 1978, thousands of works from 1959 would be entering the public domain. They range from the films North by Northwest and Ben-Hur, to the play A Raisin in the Sun, to the books The Naked Lunch and Starship Troopers, the first episodes of The Twilight Zone, and much more. Have a look at some of the others. In fact, since copyright used to come in renewable terms of 28 years, and 85% of authors did not renew, 85% of the works from 1987 might be entering the public domain! Imagine what the great libraries of the world – or just internet hobbyists – could do: digitizing those holdings, making them available for education and research, for pleasure and for creative reuse.
For the works that are still commercially available, the shrinking public domain increases costs to citizens and limits creative reuse. But at least those works are available. Unfortunately, much of our cultural heritage, perhaps the majority of the culture of the last 80 years, consists of orphan works. These are works that have no identifiable or locatable copyright holder. Though no one is benefiting from the copyright, they are unavailable: it is presumptively illegal to copy, redistribute, or publicly perform them.
…And What Can Be Done About It
Does all this mean that copyright is a bad system? Of course not. Copyright gives creators – authors, musicians, filmmakers, photographers – exclusive rights over their works for a limited time. This encourages creators to create and publishers to distribute – that’s a very good thing. But when the copyright ends, the work enters the public domain – to join the plays of Shakespeare, the music of Mozart, the books of Dickens – the material of our collective culture. That’s a good thing too! It’s the second part of the copyright bargain; the limited period of exclusive rights ends and the work enters the realm of free culture. Prices fall, new editions come out, songs can be sung, symphonies performed, movies displayed. Even better, people can legally build on what came before.
The basic principles of our copyright system are sound. But studies like the Hargreaves Review commissioned by the UK government, empirical comparisons of the availability of copyrighted works and public domain works and economic studies of the effects of copyright (other articles are here and here) all suggest that lengthy copyright extensions impose costs that far outweigh their benefits. In fact, economists who have modeled the ideal copyright term have uniformly suggested that it should be far shorter than it is right now. Some have suggested that it should be as short as 15 years. And every economic study has concluded that if there are to be copyright term extensions, they should not be retroactive.
What can be done about all this? One obvious first step is legal reform that would give greater access to orphan works. The US Copyright Office has continued its efforts to find solutions to the orphan works problem. Authors and creators can also choose to license their work under more generous terms than standard copyright through Creative Commons licenses (for works like books, movies, music and art) or free and open source licenses for software. These open licenses create a privately constructed commons in which all can share freely. Fundamentally, though, the key is public education about the delicate balance between intellectual property and the public domain. That is the goal of our Center.
You can learn even more about the public domain by reading our Frequently Asked Questions page, and from scholarly literature on the subject, including David Lange’s seminal 1981 article “Recognizing the Public Domain” and James Boyle’s book The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind (Yale University Press, 2008). Naturally, you can read the full text of The Public Domain online at no cost and you are free to copy and redistribute it for non-commercial purposes. You can also read In Ambiguous Battle: The Promise (and Pathos) of Public Domain Day, an article by Center Director Jennifer Jenkins revealing the promise and the limits of various attempts to reverse the erosion of the public domain, and a short article in the Huffington Post celebrating a previous Public Domain Day.
1 The European Union has a term of life plus 70 years, meaning the works of authors who died in 1945 go into the public domain on January 1, 2016 (the beginning of the year after copyright expiration). Canada's term is life plus 50 years, so the works of authors who died in 1965 will enter the public domain in 2016. However, it is often very hard to determine if a particular work is in the public domain. The public domain works we mention are based on the assumption that the named author is the copyright holder and that the term is life plus fifty or seventy years.
2 The copyright holder has recently argued that Anne Frank’s father, Otto Frank, was a co-author of her diary, so that its copyright would not expire until 70 years after his death, or 2051, rather than 2016 (70 years after Anne Frank died). However, as many experts have pointed out, it appears that Anne Frank is the sole author of her diary. Mr. Frank’s contributions to the work – such as merging two versions of the diary – are those of a compiler or editor, not a joint author. In a separate matter, the copyright holder also sued the Anne Frank House (along with the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) for copying the diary in the course of textual and historical research on Anne Frank’s manuscripts. Happily, in late December 2015, a Dutch court ruled that this academic research does not infringe copyright: "The [copyright holder] would appear to be claiming the right to determine what sort of scientific research takes place and that right is not protected by copyright laws.”
3 No published works will enter the United States public domain until 2019. However, a subset of works – unpublished works that were created by authors who died in 1945 and were not registered with the Copyright Office before 1978 – will be entering the public domain this year. But, because these works were never published, potential users are much less likely to encounter them. In addition, it is difficult to determine whether works were “published” for copyright purposes. Therefore, this site focuses on the millions of published works that will not be entering the public domain.
Special thanks to our tireless and talented research maven and website guru Balfour Smith.
Public Domain Day 2016 by Duke Law School's Center for the Study of the Public Domain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.